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Biotinmangel - Woran erkenne ich einen Biotinmangel?
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class="page-template-default page page-id-52 custom content-shadow responsive pagelines default full_width ">

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Ist der Körper mit lebenswichtigen Nährstoffen unterversorgt, zeigt er das bald mit typischen Symptomen und Mangelerscheinungen. Weil Biotin sowohl für den Stoffwechsel als auch für den Zellaufbau eine zentrale Rolle spielt, treten bei einem Biotinmangel sehr unterschiedliche Symptome auf.


Wie entsteht Biotinmangel?

Biotinmangel kann unterschiedliche Ursachen haben. Er ist entweder auf eine Fehlernährung zurückzuführen oder auf die reduzierte Fähigkeit des Organismus, den Nährstoff Biotin aus der Nahrung zu lösen. Manche Bevölkerungsgruppen wie Sportler, Schwangere und ältere Menschen haben außerdem einen erhöhten Grundbedarf an Biotin.

Eine Unterversorgung durch Ernährungsfehler entsteht zum Beispiel durch ungünstige Diäten oder den übermäßigen Verzehr von rohem Eiklar, das Biotin für den Körper unverwertbar macht. Aber auch ein hoher Nikotin- oder Alkoholkonsum kann eine Ursache für den Mangel an Vitamin B7 sein.

Ein weiterer Grund für einen Mangel an Biotin im Organismus kann eine Übersäuerung sein, die durch eine Störung des Säure-Basen-Gleichgewichts im Körper entsteht. Ein solch saures Zellmilieu kann Vitamin B7 in seiner Funktion hemmen oder ganz zerstören. Auch hier ist zumeist eine einseitige, ungesunde Ernährung die Ursache.

Häufige Magen-Darm-Erkrankungen, die Verwendung von Abführmitteln oder Antibiotika-Therapien können die Darmflora nachhaltig stören und schädigen. Die natürliche Biotin-Produktion durch im Darm lebende Bakterien wird so unterbunden. Auch Resorptionsstörungen der Darmschleimhaut im Bereich des Dünndarms können eine ausreichende Biotin-Aufnahme im Körper verhindern. Ebenfalls ursächlich für eine schlechte Biotin-Aufnahme durch den Körper sind manche Medikamente.

Bisweilen ist die mangelhafte Verwertung von Biotin durch den Organismus sogar angeboren. Der Körper benötigt ein Eiweiß namens Biotinidase, das Biotin aus der Nahrung löst und dem Organismus die Aufnahme des Vitamins so ermöglicht. Bei einer angeborenen Störung der Biotinaufnahme ist das Erbgut soweit verändert, dass dieses Eiweiß nicht hergestellt werden kann. In der Fachsprache heißt diese Erkrankung Biotinidase-Mangel.


Symptome bei einem Biotinmangel

Symptome des BiotinmangelsEin anhaltender Mangel an Biotin verringert die Produktion von Kreatin. Dies hat vor allem Auswirkungen auf die Nägel, die Haare sowie die Hornschicht der Haut. Ein auffälliges Symptom ist, dass durch einen Mangel an Biotin Haare stumpf, spröde und brüchig werden. Weil das Vitamin H auch für den Stoffwechsel wichtig ist und somit die Nährstoffversorgung der Haarwurzeln beeinflusst, kann eine Unterversorgung mit Biotin Haarausfall nicht nur fördern, sondern sogar auslösen.

Brüchig, spröde und rissig werden bei Biotinmangel ebenfalls die Finger- und Fußnägel. Die Qualität der Nagelstruktur verschlechtert sich deutlich, das Nagelwachstum wird zudem verlangsamt. Die Haut wiederum kann bei einem Mangel an Vitamin H entzündliche und schuppige Veränderungen zeigen und ist in ihrer Funktion gestört. Da Vitamin H auch für den Zellaufbau von essenzieller Bedeutung ist, kann eine schlechtere Wundheilung zu den Folgen einer Unterversorgung gehören.

Biotin spielt außerdem eine wichtige Rolle bei vielen Stoffwechselvorgängen. Werden diese gestört, können Muskelschmerzen, Störungen des Nervensystems und Depressionen entstehen. Auch Lethargie und Appetitlosigkeit können auftreten, ebenso wie Durchfall, Erbrechen und anhaltende Übelkeit. Häufig tritt zusammen mit diesen Symptomen ein unerwünschter Gewichtsverlust auf. Nicht zuletzt schwächt der Mangel an Biotin das Immunsystem, was eine erhöhte Anfälligkeit für Infektionen bedeutet.


Biotinbedarf bei Erwachsenen

Biotinbedarf bei Erwachsenen zwischen 25 und 65 Jahren
Die DGE (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung) empfiehlt Jugendlichen ab 15 Jahren und Erwachsenen eine tägliche Aufnahme von 30 bis 60 Mikrogramm Biotin. Dieser Ernährungsempfehlung liegt allerdings ein Schätzwert zugrunde: Wie viel Biotin der menschliche Körper tatsächlich benötigt, ist noch nicht abschließend erforscht.

Da Biotin aber auch in sehr hoher Dosierung keinerlei Nebenwirkungen nachgewiesen werden konnten, ist eine erhöhte Aufnahme durch Tabletten oder Kapseln als unbedenklich anzusehen. Diese Einschätzung teilt auch das Bundesamt für Risikoabschätzung: Hier wird das gesundheitliche Risiko durch die Verwendung von Biotin in Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln lediglich als gering eingeschätzt.


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